|Soil  Problems and threats to the soil Soil pollution|
Past and present economic activities have often resulted in the pollution of the underlying soil where these activities take place.
The most common toxic soil pollutants include metals and their compounds, organic chemicals, oils and tars, pesticides, explosive and toxic gases, radioactive materials, biologically active materials, combustible materials, asbestos and other hazardous materials. These substances commonly arise from the disposal of industrial and domestic waste products in designated landfills or uncontrolled dumps.
Soil pollution by heavy metals
Soil pollution by pesticides and organic contaminates
Soil pollution by nitrates and phosphorus
Soil pollution by artificial radionuclides
The existence of unauthorised dumps is one of the environmental problems in Europe that deserves utmost attention. The remediation costs of polluted areas in Europe are roughly estimated at more than EUR 100 billion.